You might ask, "Why do we call this the circle of fifths?" The name derives from the fact that if you move clock-wise around the circle (starting with the key of C major for instance) you will see the interval (distance) from one key to the next is the interval of a fifth (C major - G major - D major, etc.).
As we explore the construction of major scales, this chart is a handy visual reminder of the mathematical certainty and order in music. Keep it handy.